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Getting Creative With Experts Advice

Four Business Formation Techniques that You Need to Apprehend

Keep in mind that a lot of effort get required before a business can supply commodities and services to the market. Additionally, a business is also needed to have a list of goals that it wants to meet before it begins its operations. That is why you should ensure that you have the right business structure. Keep in mind that business structure is an essential aspect of every company. To make the process of business formation active, you should look for an organization that allocate those services in your area. Continue reading the article below to have the understanding of the business formation techniques that are you should incorporate.

Hiring the best team is one of the business tips that you every entrepreneur need to understand. To make sure that you will get the workers that will best suit the requirements of the organization that you want to launch, you should carry out the hiring process correctly. For that reason, you should inspect to ensure that you hire the employees with most excellent education testimonials.

Funding your organization is the proceeding business formation technique that every entrepreneur ought to understand. Thus, it is prudent to know the sources of the finance for your business before you enter to the market to sell a particular commodity or service. You can search for a creditors in your suburb if you do not have enough funds to finance your agency. However, it is desirable to consider the interest rates before you apply for a loan. Make sure that you look for the creditor that will allocate an interest rate that will be within your means.

Getting flexible is in the midst of the business formation tricks that every businessperson need to understand. Therefore, you must ensure that you are flexible to be able to adapt to the fluctuations that you may encounter as your organization develops. Additionally, to keep loyal clients happy, you should ensure that you respond to their needs as the organization develops.

In addition, decreasing risk in your corporation is the last business formation trick that every entrepreneur should comprehend before entering to the market to sell a particular product or service. For that reason, you should make sure that you look for a protection plan to ensure that you will be in a better situation to get compensated in case you face damages. Sustain the insurance plan to account for fluctuations as your organization develops.

In conclusion, partner with a service provider to carry out the business formation procedures if your internal team cannot undertake such services. For that reason, to contract with an experienced organization that allocates business formation, you should hire Panlegis Company.

What I Can Teach You About Experts

Some Things that You Should be Looking for in the Business Formation Agent

There can be a lot of business formation agents such as Panlegis that you can find out there as you would plan to set up a company with the help of the business formation agent. It is most excellent that you know about them more and what they offer beforehand. These are the essential things that you need to check out if you are going to choose such company formation agent to ensure that you can have a professional as well as complete service.

One important thing that you have to ensure is that the company or agent is registered with ACRA. The association is going to encourage those agents in that business formation industry to reach as well as maintain a high standard. Hence, when your formation agent is associated with ACRA, then you are surely more likely to get a quality and trustworthy service.

You also have to be sure that they have a great level of customer service. You must check if they have such fantastic level of customer support on many media in place since this is important in case you have questions on the formation process. They should have excellent email support, telephone support or live chat support.

Make sure that you are also able to find that agent with services that you need. You may have extra services like tax, accountancy, the back office services and the company secretarial services and also business plans after the incorporation. Such can surely make it a lot easier for the company to have the required accounting systems in place from such company formation and this would show a great level of business expertise from such formation agent.

Also, it is imperative that they are backed by such chartered accountants as well as advisers. When such formation agent is able to give you with an excellent accountancy service or professional tax advice or advice from the chartered accountant from that chartered tax adviser after formation, they would help you when the business grows and not just as you start up.

Will they give you free business consultation? There are agents that are providing free one hour consultation after such formation so that they can discuss the accounting obligations and start-up tax. Such can be a fantastic way to know all you must know for starting up your business and get answers to the questions that you have and be sure that you are able to stay compliant with those company laws and also regulations.

Such personal and business finances should be kept separate. Such would mean that your new business will have with a new account in the bank.

The Basic Principles of Preventing Infection

Basic Infection Control refers to measures designed to prevent the spread of infections or potentially infectious microorganisms to health personnel, clients and visitor. Various infection control measures are used to decrease the risk of transmission of microorganisms in hospitals.

Principles of Basic Infection Control

1. Microorganism move through space on air currents. Avoid shaking or tossing linens as these motions create currents on which these microorganisms can be transported. All isolation room doors should be closed to stop air currents.

2. Microorganisms are transferred from one surface to another whenever objects touch. When a clean item touches a less clean item, it becomes “dirty” because microorganisms are transferred to it. Keep your hands away from your hair and face. Keep linens away from your uniform. Always keep clean items separated from dirty ones, any object dropped to the floor is considered dirty.

3. Microorganisms are released into the air on droplet nuclei, whenever a person breathes or speaks. Coughing and sneezing dramatically increases the number of microorganisms released from the mouth and nose. Cover mouth when coughing and sneezing. Wash hands thoroughly.

4. Microorganisms are transferred by gravity when one item is held above another. Avoid passing dirty items over clean items or areas because it is possible for the microorganisms to drop off into a clean item or area. When storing items in a bedside stand, place a clean items on upper shelves and potentially dirty items such as bedpans on lower shelves.

5. Microorganisms move slowly on dry surfaces but very quickly through moisture. Use dry paper towel when you turn off faucets. Dry both basin before placing on bed side for storage.

6. Proper hand washing removes many of the microorganisms that would be transferred by the hands from one item to another.

Universal Precaution

1. Wear clean examination gloves for listed body fluids: Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, CSF, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, amniotic fluid, etc.

2. Wash hands:

  • a. Immediately after contact with body substances containing blood
  • b. Between patient care
  • c. Immediately after gloves are removed.

3. Wear masks and protective eyewear when appropriate.

4. Wear moisture-proof apron when appropriate.

5. Wear utility (household rubber) gloves appropriately

6. Dispose of equipment and secretions properly

7. Wear sterile gloves appropriately

8. Handle specimens of blood and listed body fluids appropriately

9. Handle soiled linens correctly:

a. Hold linen away from uniform

b. Do not shake or toss linen

c. Transport linen contaminated with blood or bloody fluids in leakage resistant proof bags.

Issues about Scabies Rash

Scabies rash can be identified only if it is accompanied by other symptoms of scabies. If you have a severe, persistent rash that doesn’t seem to ease up it might be caused by infestation with scabies mites. Scabies rash is characterized through itching and soreness and it tends to intensify at night. Scabies rash may also become very irritated after taking a hot shower or bath. If the skin appears to be blistery and scratched and the presence of small burrows is revealed on the surface of the skin, it is a possible sign of scabies rash and appropriate dermatological treatment is required.

An overwhelming number of 300 million people worldwide are diagnosed with scabies each year. Scabies can be very easily acquired by simply touching a contaminated person. Although scabies is very contagious, scabies rash can’t be transmitted from a person to another. Scabies rash usually occurs when the body develops allergic reactions to scabies mites and their feces. The only contagious aspect of scabies involves the mite infestation. If the mites responsible for causing scabies are transmitted to a person, they will quickly infest the skin and the symptoms of scabies will occur within a few days. Scabies mites can be acquired through direct contact with an infested person or by touching or wearing contaminated clothes or personal items. Scabies mites can live without their human hosts for about 3 days and therefore they can easily contaminate bed sheets, clothes, towels, etc.

The main cause of scabies in people is contamination with a particular type of mite, called Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. This microscopic mite lives only on the bodies of human hosts and an infected person can spread it to hundreds of other persons.

It is important to note that scabies rash, just like other scabies symptoms, doesn’t occur due to improper hygiene. Although in the past, when the true nature of scabies wasn’t completely understood, people considered scabies rash to be the consequence of poor hygiene, today the cause of scabies rash is clear to most people. It is true that scabies occurs mostly to people from the lower classes of society, but this has nothing to do with hygiene. The factors that facilitate the   transmission  of scabies are overcrowding and situations that involve a lot of physical contact (factory workers). Hygiene can neither facilitate the occurrence of scabies, nor prevent it.

The most common symptoms of scabies are inflammation, discomfort, pain, swelling of the skin, pustules, burrows, nodules. However, the most intense of all seems to be the scabies rash. This symptom of scabies occurs as a result of allergic reactions to the mites’ feces, secretions, eggs and larvae.

Scabies rash is among the first symptoms that occur and it is usually the last one to disappear. Even if the condition is appropriately treated with topical medications, scabies rash may persist for another few weeks! This is due to the fact that even after they die, the mites remain under the skin and continue to produce allergies that cause scabies rash. The mites’ secretions contain substances that are toxic to the human body. However, there are ways of easing the itch, soreness and pain characteristic to scabies rash. Dermatologists usually prescribe hydrocortisone and antihistamine along with the treatment for scabies. These topical medications are usually in the form of creams, gels and ointments and they ameliorate scabies rash. However, if the scabies rash persists and even intensifies after a few weeks, it is a sign that the mite infestation hasn’t been eradicated and the treatment needs to be repeated.

Benefits of Using a VoIP Telephone

Most of you would have heard about VoIP and for those who haven’t it’s never too late. VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol and is revolutionizing the telephone industry by combining the benefits of traditional analog telephones and modern day internet. VoIP telephone works by converting the analog signals into digital signal so that you get superb audio quality.

Companies now offer VoIP services all over the world at very reasonable rates. Although, it is very difficult to make people forget about traditional landline phones and make them use VoIP, but it comes with a full bag of benefits which make it very difficult to ignore. Slowly but steadily VoIP is catching up popularity among masses and classes both. Some of the main benefits of VoIP telephone over traditional phones are:

• The call rate for long distance calls is very less in VoIP thus making the landline phones not so useful.

• As compared to the pulse rate service provided by landline phone companies most VoIP service providers offer packages wherein you get unlimited talk time at a flat rate. So you don’t have to keep track of the watch while making an international call. This facility is very useful if your family lives in some other country and you are in other country for some purpose. You can interact with your family and friends for as long as you want.

• Use of VoIP for conference calling and multi way calling is relatively easy. Unlike traditional phones which only offer 3 way calling you can add as many people to your conversation as you want in VoIP. Also the facility of conference calling makes it a perfect tool for holding telephonic seminars, conferences and telephonic interviews.

• Most VoIP service providers have the option of combined plans wherein you pay for your broadband usage and VoIP usage together. Hence you can save good amount of money by using VoIP over traditional phones.

• Use of VoIP telephone will substantially cut down on your telephone bills. Even the most costly VoIP provider is very cheap when compared with traditional landline companies. Plus the quality you get is unmatchable as it is completely digital and is very likely to be affected by additional factors unlike traditional landline which used wires for   transmission  so if anything happens to the wire your service gets hampered.

• Many features for which you pay extra on your landline come free with VoIP telephone.

These along with other features make VoIP technology very hard to resist and a good alternative for traditional landline phones.

Services Tips for The Average Joe

Why Should You Get An Air Conditioning Unit In Dubai

Being a city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), there is no doubt Dubai has a hot temperature. This is the reason why an air conditioning unit is very important in almost all buildings to help out in regulating room temperatures. There are many brands of air conditioning units today distributed by different companies but they may all differ in terms of quality and durability.

When looking for the best distributors of topnotch quality air conditioning units, don’t miss O General Air Conditioners as they are one of the leading distributors when it comes to air conditioners. You can guarantee O General Air Conditioners give you high class air conditioning units of different split systems from cassette, ceiling, general and even ducted ones! Quality is also O’s utmost priority so you can really ensure that with them, you can get high class and international quality air conditioning units that are totally worth trying for.

But O General not only sells new air conditioners because they also offer ac repair, ac installation, ac maintenance, ac duct and all other ac services that you may need to avail. So if you are looking for the best air conditioner in UAE, you should definitely try O General because they give you the best quality units for a relatively low price as compared to other distributors. Other than that, they also make things easier and more convenient for you by letting their own representative install the unit that you purchase so you can really say that you have a great deal for your money.

They also take so much care to their employees that if you have problems with your air conditioners, they also have a team of technicians to check them up for you. Getting a repairman from the actual distributors is also ideal in most cases because if you ask another person to fix your unit for you, they may have a hard time if they are not used to it so it is always better to go for the mechanic that masters your unit well.

We all can’t deny it that when it comes to air conditioning units, we may sometime need assistance beyond the office hours and that is nothing to worry about in O General because they have customer service representatives that provide assistance any time and all you have to do is just give them a call.

Don’t miss the chance of getting the best services now! Now you know how to buy the right air conditioning Dubai with O General Air Conditioners. Get the best split ac UAE for your homes now and enjoy convenient ac maintenance dubai. Visit the O General AC website now, call the hotline or drop by the nearest branch near you to know more about this distributor.

The 10 Best Resources For Education

The Convenience of Having Online Insurance Courses

When it comes to the industry such as the insurance, there is really a huge competition that is taking place out there and there are a lot of trainings and studies needed for one to stay in the game and one should also be updated regarding those new regulations. It actually doesn’t matter if you are an independent agent or another because these types would still need licensing as well as continuing education for one to efficiently sell those insurance policies. Since there is separate licensing for the various types of insurance, you have to know what kinds of insurance policies you are interested about selling before you start the training.

There is really nothing to worry anymore now because you can opt for the online insurance courses from Insurance Schools Inc. With this, you can be sure that you will be able to get more knowledge and be trained through the internet which is really a convenient method of learning and continuing your education regarding insurances. You can also go through those Insurance Schools Inc. reviews so that you can know more benefits.

When you would like to get such insurance training in the casualty and property insurance, then this will permit you to write home as well as car policies along with other same insurance policies. However, if you would like to be trained on life and health, then you can write the insurance policies on life and health. These two groups of insurance are a lot more different an this is why you must also have a different licensing. Being an insurance agent, it is really a lucrative career. You will have to be sure that you are able to get the right training which goes with that particular field of work you are going for.

Make sure that you keep in mind that continuing education is also important in this career. That ongoing professional insurance training can help you learn regarding the new regulations and methods of doing things so that you may stay on top of the game all the time. Make sure that you really do things to keep your career going strong so that you will be able to achieve the success that you want. With proper training, then you will be able to keep the insurance career going really strong as you work.

You can now earn that insurance continuing education credits by simply taking the online insurance CE courses from your own home. You may now complete that chosen online insurance course which are needed for certification from the list of courses online which are all approved by the department of state insurance which you work in. Those online insurance courses could also assist you to get such competitive advantage n that insurance market where you should prove the skill you have so that you can get more sales from those insurance policies.

Learning The “Secrets” of Security

Advantages of Using a Payment Card.

For safety measures in e-commerce applications The major concern relating to it is the use of the credit or debit cards. To secure the card details a breakdown can cause a major dent to an institute in terms of monetary fraud, legal policy, identity theft and loss of buyer buoyancy. Do not hoard the card justification code and the PIN confirmation value even if it’s not encrypted. The limit number of digits to be exhibited are the first six and last four digits. The records on databases and portable media storing the cardholder information en-encrypted anywhere makes the information in comprehensible. Shipping goods should have an agreement delivery from the disbursement gateway. Informing the card possessor of any transaction by encrypting the contents through email. The follow up actions should be done through email or by phone to the card carrier about a breach.

The choice of saving username or passwords should not be given consumers which might amplify the risk of documentation neglect in public computers. Cards are faster and cheaper to use than cheques. For daily expenses cards are practical and can be used over the handset and internet. Access to money which is withdrawn from ATMs is swift. Currency exchange are handled routinely offering a vital payment method for vacationer’s sector businesses or those promoting to clients abroad by using expense cards globally. Whim purchases are encouraged as the shopper does not require to have cash with them. One hold less cash on their premises due to improved security. Exposed or discovered card particulars may result to one finding falsified purchases appearing in their testimonials. Expenses involved are not usually too expensive like transaction charges. Some cards even bid incentive to spend, such as money back or loyalty points which means you could in fact make money from your credit card.

A credit card permits you to make purchases on loan. The big problem is that you are borrowing against your own funds to do it. A debit card and your depository account are directly linked. Prepaid cards can be purchased at unit supplies. To pay your employees differently, it is always advisable to consider using the new technology. The number of payment processing companies has been increasing significantly over the recent years.

EDGE: A Stepping-stone Toward 3G Technologies in Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The business of wireless data is expected to grow in the region of 100-200 % per annum and the mobile communication industry agrees that wireless data services will form the foundation for future business. The enormous success of short messaging in many countries proves that people accept the benefits of non-voice services.

Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution (EDGE) is a technology that gives Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM) the capacity to handle services for the third generation of mobile telephony. It provides three times the data capacity of General packet Radio Service (GPRS). Using EDGE, operators can handle three times more subscribers than GPRS; triple their data rate per subscriber, or add extra capacity to their voice communications.

This article provides an overview of EDGE technology. In particular, starting from the introduction of this 2.5G technology I describe the core technical aspects and distinct features. I will provide a comparison with GPRS for data services and then a survey of the current state of this technology in Pakistan. I have also covered some benefits for operators and customers.

1. Introduction

The importance of wireless data and multimedia services both for business and end customers are increasing on an unparalleled scale. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is a new radio interface solution and is based on an enhanced modulation. EDGE offers GSM network operators an evolution path to mobile data and multimedia services with a three fold increase of data throughput in the existing GSM spectrum. EDGE therefore provides an alternative for operators who do not have a Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) license. Moreover it also represents a complement to UMTS for operators intending to first deploy UMTS only in densely populated areas, but who can also use EDGE to provide wide area coverage of future oriented 3G services. In the US market operators have chosen EDGE as the 3G solutions. [8].

We are presently experiencing the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) as well as the higher   transmission  speeds of High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD), joined by the convenience of “always on-line” direct Internet connections with GPRS. [1]

EDGE, new radios interface technology with enhanced modulation, increases the HSCSD and GPRS data rates by up to three fold. EDGE modulation is going to increase the data throughput provided by the packet switched service even over 400 kbps per carrier. Similarly, the data rates of circuit switched data can be increased, or existing data rates can be achieved using fewer timeslots, saving capacity. Accordingly, these higher speed data services are referred to as EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS) and ECSD (Enhanced Circuit Switched Data).

EDGE, is a major improvement in GSM phase 2+. As a modification to existing GSM networks, EDGE does not require new network elements. [1]

In the US, for instance, EDGE is part of the IS-136 High Speed concept, which is one of the third generation Radio  Transmission  Technology (RTT) proposals from TR.45. EDGE is eventually going to be standardized which makes possible to achieve a global mobile radio system with many services characteristic to third generation systems.

2. Overview

The increased bit rates of EDGE put requirements on the GSM/GPRS network architecture. Figure. 1 illustrates the GSM/GPRS architecture, the shaded parts of which are discussed in this section. Other nodes and interfaces are not affected at all by EDGE introduction. An apparent bottleneck is the A-bis interface, which today supports up to 16 kb/s per traffic channel. With EDGE, the bit rate per traffic channel will approach 64 kb/s, which makes allocation of multiple A-bis slots to one traffic channel necessary. Alternative asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) or IP-based solutions to this problem can also be discusses.

One important fact is, however, that the 16 kb/s limit will be exceeded already by the introduction of two coding schemes (CS3 and CS4) in GPRS, which have a maximal bit rate per traffic channel of 22.8 kb/s. Consequently, the A-bis limitation problem is being solved outside the EDGE standardization, and it is therefore a GPRS related, not EDGE-related, modification. For GPRS-based packet data services, other nodes and interfaces are already capable of handling higher bit rates, and are thus not affected. For circuit-switched services, the A interface can handle 64 kb/s per user, which is not exceeded by EDGE circuit-switched bearers. [9]

2.1. Impact on GSM Network Planning

An important prerequisite, which to a large extent will determine the success of EDGE in GSM, is that a network operator be able to introduce EDGE gradually. For initial deployment, EDGE-capable transceivers will supplement standard GSM/GPRS transceivers in a subset of the existing cells where EDGE coverage is desired. Hence, an integrated mix of GSM, GPRS, and EDGE users will coexist in the same frequency band. To minimize effort and cost for the network operator, radio network planning (including cell planning, frequency setting of power and other cell parameters) must not require extensive modification.

2.1.1. Coverage Planning

One characteristic of non-transparent radio link protocols that include automatic repeat request (ARQ), is that low radio link quality only results in a lower bit rate for the user. Hence, low SIR for a user does not result in a dropped call, as for speech, but in a temporary decrease of user bit rate. For transparent bearers, which typically offer a constant bit rate, link quality control must be extended to incorporate resource allocation, in the sense that the number of dynamically allocated time slots fits the bit rate and bit error rate (BER) retirements. Transparent bearers, will thus be available in the entire GSM cell, but require fewer time slots in the center of the cell (where 8-PSK coding schemes can be used).

2.1.2. Frequency Planning

Most mature GSM networks of today have an average frequency reuse factor of around 9 (meaning that available frequencies are divided into nine frequency groups). However, there is also a trend toward tighter reuse factors. With the use of frequency hopping, multiple reuse patterns (MRP), and discontinuous  transmission  (DTX), reuse factors as low as 3 become feasible. EDGE supports a variety of reuse patterns. In fact, by its use of link quality control, EDGE can be introduced in an arbitrary frequency plan, and benefit from high SIR closer to the base stations. EDGE can be introduced in an existing GSM frequency plan, and that it also supports future high-capacity solutions based on tighter frequency reuse.

2.1.3. Radio Network Planning

An important prerequisite (and to a large extent, one that will determine the success of Edge) is that network operators should be able to introduce Edge gradually. The initial deployment of Edge-capable transceivers will supplement standard GSM transceivers in a subset of cells where Edge coverage is desired. An integrated mixture of circuit-switched, GPRS and Edge users will thus coexist in the same frequency band. To minimize operator efforts and costs, Edge-related implementation must not require extensive modification of the radio network plan (including cell planning, frequency planning, the setting of power levels and other cell parameters).

2.1.4. Channel Management

After Edge has been introduced, a cell will typically include two types of transceiver: standard GSM transceivers and Edge transceivers. Each physical channel (time slot) in the cell can be viewed as being one of at least four channel types:

1. GSM speech and GSM circuit-switched data (CSD);

2. GPRS packet data;

3. Circuit-switched data, enhanced circuits witched data (ECSD), and GSM speech;

4. Edge packet data (EGPRS), which allows a mix of GPRS and EGPRS users simultaneously.

While standard GSM transceivers only support channel types 1 and 2, Edge transceivers support all four channel types. Physical channels are dynamically defined according to terminal capabilities and needs in the cell. For example, if several speech users are active, the number of type-1 channels is increased, at the expense of GPRS and Edge channels. Obviously, channel management must be automated, to avoid the splitting of channels into static groups. Otherwise, trunking efficiency would diminish.

3. Interleaving

To increase the performance of the higher coding schemes in EGPRS (MCS7 to MCS9) even at low C/I, the interleaving procedure has been changed within the EGPRS standard. When frequency hopping is used, the radio environment is changing on a per-burst level. Because a radio block is interleaved and transmitted over four bursts for GPRS, each burst may experience a completely different interference environment. [7]

If just one of the four bursts is not properly received, the entire radio block will not be properly decoded and will have to be retransmitted. In the case of CS4 for GPRS, hardly any error protection is used at all. With EGPRS, the standard handles the higher coding scheme differently than GPRS to combat this problem. MCS7, MCS8 and MCS9 actually transmit two radio blocks over the four bursts, and the interleaving occurs over two bursts instead of four. This reduces the number of bursts that must be retransmitted should errors occur. The likelihood of receiving two consecutive error free bursts is higher than receiving four consecutive error free bursts. This means that the higher coding schemes

for EDGE have a better robustness with regard to frequency hopping.

4. EDGE & GPRS

EDGE, or the Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution, is the new mantra in the Global Internet Connectivity scene. EDGE is the new name for GSM 384. The technology was named GSM 384 because of the fact that it provided Data  Transmission  at a rate of 384 Kbps. It consists of the 8 pattern time slot, and the speed could be achieved when all the 8 time slots were used. The idea behind EDGE is to obtain even higher data rates on the current 200 KHz GSM carrier, by changing the type of the modulation used.

Now, this is the most striking feature. EDGE, as being once a GSM technology, works on the existing GSM or the TDMA carriers, and enables them to many of the 3G services. Although EDGE will have a little technical impact, since its fully based on GSM or the TDMA carriers, but it might just get an EDGE over the up coming technologies, and of course, the GPRS. With EDGE, the operators and service providers can offer more wireless data application, including wireless multimedia, e-mail (Web Based), Web Infotainment, and above all, the technology of Video Conferencing.

Now all these technologies that were named earlier, were the clauses of the IMT-UMTS 3G Package. But, with EDGE, we can get all these 3G services on our existing GSM phones, which might just prove to be a boon to the user.

The current scenario clearly states that EDGE will definitely score higher than GPRS. The former allows its users to increase the data speed and throughput capacity, to around 3-4 times higher than GPRS.

Secondly, it allows the existing GSM or the TDMA carriers to give the sophisticated 3G services. And with 1600 Million subscribers of GSM in over 170 countries, offer the full Global Roaming, anywhere between India to Japan and to San Francisco. Based on an 8 PSK modulation, it allows higher bit rate across the air Interface. There is one symbol for every 3 bits. Thus, EDGE Rate is equal to 3x GPRS Rate.

5. Future Evolution Towards WCDMA

The next evolutionary step for the GSM/EDGE cellular system includes enhancements of service provisioning for the packet-switched domain with the service provisioning in UMTS/UTRAN (UMTS terrestrial radio access network). GERAN will provide improved support for all quality of service (QoS) classes defined for UMTS: interactive, background, streaming and conversational. By doing so, a new range of applications, including IP multimedia applications, will be adequately supported. This part of the GSM/EDGE evolution focuses on support for the conversational and streaming service classes, because adequate support for interactive and background services already exists. Additionally, parallel simultaneous bearers will support multimedia applications with different QoS characteristics towards the same MS, such as multiple media streams handled through IMS domain. A driver for such evolution on the packet-switched side is the paradigm shift within the telecommunications world from circuit to packet-switched communications.

Both the core network defined for GPRS and the current GSM/EDGE radio access network require modifications to support enhanced packet services. The GPRS/EGPRS networks can quickly and cost effectively evolve with market needs, and align with services provided by WCDMA networks. The current evolution of GSM/EDGE, which covers all of the above aspects, is being standardized in 3GPP TSG GERAN. [4]

6. EDGE in Pakistan

Pakistan has the sixth largest population in the world – approximately 150 million. There are currently four mobile operators in the country. Mobile penetration at the end of 2003 was just 2.3% with a subscriber base of 3.4 million, while fixed line penetration was approximately 2.4%. Many geographic areas in Pakistan are without telephone coverage. To accompany recent positive economic development in Pakistan and the inherently low mobile penetration, high growth within the mobile segment is expected. At the moment the people in Pakistan are more concern with the text-enabled facility like SMS. Although the introduction of GPRS gave a new concept and new boost in Cellular network but still, people are not that much concern using Internet by their terminal. Few think that it still more costly and few believe that GPRS didn’t develop the interest for using Internet if we compared it by computer.

In April 2004 Norwegian mobile telecom operator, Telenor, bid for and ultimately won a license to operate a cellular network in Pakistan. The license covers the operation of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technology for the network. [14]

Telenor Pakistan has signed two deals with mobile infrastructure contractors for different areas of the network:

Nokia have signed a three-year deal to build and operate a GSM / GPRS / EDGE network to cover the central and Northern Punjab region (phase one), centered around Lahore.

Siemens have signed a deal to build a GSM / GPRS / EDGE network to cover the southern areas of Pakistan, centered around Islamabad.

Further enhancements in data capability over the core GPRS / GSM network will be provided in both networks with the installation of Enhanced Data for Global (GSM) Evolution technology. This component of the two systems will be installed after the initial roll-outs and will allow the subscribers to have the use of advanced mobile services such as downloading video and music clips, full multimedia messaging, high-speed color Internet access and email on the move.

Nortel Networks will upgrade Ufone’s existing wireless systems and supply new GSM/GPRS core network and radio access equipment, including Mobile Switching Center, Home Location Register (HLR) and advanced Base Transceiver Stations (BTS).

A key component of the Ufone expansion will be Nortel Networks BTS 12000, designed to deliver additional capacity within a GSM/GPRS network while positioning operators to drive lower costs and to offer advanced wireless services based on third generation (3G) EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution) technology. The expansion will also include Nortel Networks Passport Packet Voice Gateway (PVG) for migration of TDM voice trunking to a packet-based infrastructure.

7. Benefits

As highlighted previously the need to reduce business risk and make the best use of existing resources is of paramount importance within today’s business environment.

7.1. Financial

GSM based networks have become the standard within the cellular landscape. As EDGE is a GSM based technology and provides an enhancement for GPRS at a little additional cost it is considered the best way in which to capitalize on existing resources. [1]

7.1.1. Radio Access Network

In most cases GPRS enabled base stations and BSC’s can be simply upgraded to EDGE by way of relatively low-cost software and hardware upgrades, which will pro-long the life cycle of the deployed RAN elements.

7.1.2. Core Network

For GPRS enhancement, there is very little modification to be completed within a GPRS enabled core network, thus enhancing the sunk core network investment.

7.1.3. Antenna Sites

There is no requirement for additional antenna sites when deploying EDGE. Assuming high quality linear amplifiers with high RF output power are used within the BTS, the coverage pattern will be the same as the existing GPRS deployment, so protecting existing site investment.

7.1.4. Spectrum Utilization

EDGE triples the GPRS data capacity whilst using the existing GSM spectrum and offers up to three times the GPRS data rate to the end user. EDGE is spectrally the most efficient radio technology for data applications requiring up to 100Kb/s throughput (compared to CDMA and WCDMA), and only WCDMA is spectrally better for higher throughputs.

7.1.5. Applications

GPRS enabled applications and services will generally not require any additional investment to become EDGE compatible. This is also valid for known WCDMA applications.

Although the financial benefits of EDGE can be apportioned to individual network elements as outlined above, one of the main business drivers is that EDGE forms an essential part of the overall GSM evolution towards a seamless multi-radio GSM/ GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA network. As mentioned previously GSM is the main standard for cellular communications worldwide and the business benefits of deploying an industry standard technology can be seen in nearly every aspect of a network deployment, from end-user devices, to applications to hardware.

7.2. For Operator

Operators can also experiences the advantages of EDGE in following ways.

7.2.1. Migration to wireless multimedia services

The operator can increase data revenues by offering attractive new types applications to end-users.

7.2.2. Improved customer satisfaction

Increased data capacity and higher data throughput will decrease response times for all data services, thus keeping end users satisfied and connected.

7.2.3. Early deployment of 3G type applications

EDGE networks are expected to emerge in year 2001, when mature markets are likely to start demanding multimedia applications.

7.2.4. Quick network implementation

EDGE will not require new network elements and EDGE capability can be introduced gradually to the network.

7.3. For User

7.3.1. Improved quality of service

Increased data capacity and higher data throughput will eventually satisfy the customers’ need for QoS.

7.3.2. Personal multimedia services

Attractive new types of applications and terminals will become available.

7.3.3. Potentially lower price per bit

Lower cost of data capacity for high-speed data applications gives the operator flexibility in pricing.

8. Conclusion

While the tug of war between access technologies – CDMA vs. UMTS vs. GSM — continues to be debated globally, EDGE provides an ideal solution for GSM carriers to add data capacity using limited spectrum. Keeping in view the fact that GSM supports more subscribers today than any other access technology (roughly 65 to 70% of the global subscriber market), and that GSM/GPRS operators are scrambling to add capacity to support user growth and launch next generation data services, the increased capacity and throughput offered by EDGE becomes very compelling. And, in a market where wireless carriers must squeeze the most out of capital outlays–past and future, it is no real surprise that we are going to see a renewed wave of interest in EDGE from our GSM customers.

Today the position of EDGE as a technology evolution of GSM is clear. Initially promoted as an alternative to WCDMA and generally a niche technology, EDGE is now regarded as a key enabler for GSM/EDGE and WCDMA operators alike. Being able to drive business value from existing GSM infrastructure and spectrum is one of the main advantages, and along-with the ability of EDGE to reduce CAPEX, time-to-market and time-to-revenue, with regards the delivery of global high-speed data services, EDGE is a must technology.

The cellular companies working in Pakistan did not have the license for the EDGE. Now as the introduction of some new companies like Telenor and WARID, it is possible that in near future Pakistan will also be able to use this facility. Then GPRS can become a real important factor in cellular network, as the people in Pakistan will use the Internet not only for downloading ring tones but also can enjoy the streaming videos by their cell phone and so many other facilities.